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Working With Use Cases

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A Wednesday Night Lecture by EllenWhitney held on 2000/02/07.

This session was based on the powerpoint presentation located at:

[20:55] *** Cindy Winegarden changes topic to '"Working With Use Cases" with Ellen Whitney'

[21:01] {CindyWinegarden} Hi everyone! Tonight's lecture is "Working With Use Cases" with Ellen Whitney.

[21:01] {CindyWinegarden} Ellen Whitney is a Visual Studio Developer and part owner of EpsSoftware in Houston, TX. She specializes in object oriented design in VFP and has been working with FoxPro since 1991. She is also the Managing Editor for CoDe Magazine.

[21:01] {EllenWhitney} Thanks Cindy

[21:01] {EllenWhitney} OK, everyone, if you weren't here last time, here's what you do....

[21:02] {EllenWhitney} Navigate to

[21:02] {EllenWhitney} And move both windows around so you can see the chat and the Web page

[21:02] {EllenWhitney} It's a Power Point presentation.

[21:03] {EllenWhitney} I will show you what slide I am talking about by putting the slide number in brackets like this [1]

[21:03] {EllenWhitney} Ready?

[21:03] {JohnDurbin} yes

[21:03] {SeanStenlund} yes

[21:03] {AlexFeldstein} Go ahead

[21:03] {EllenWhitney} [1]

[21:04] {EllenWhitney} This is an Introduction to Use Cases. We'll basically start this presentation where I left of last time...

[21:04] {EllenWhitney}


[21:04] {EllenWhitney} Cindy did a great job of introducing me, so we'll move along... :)

[21:05] {EllenWhitney} [3]

[21:05] {EllenWhitney} In this session we’ll cover Use Cases – Why, What and How…

[21:05] {EllenWhitney} I’ll also give you some good resource links to find out more information about using Use Cases in your project.

[21:05] {EllenWhitney} [4]

[21:05] {EllenWhitney} Ivar Jacobson first introduced the Use Case and the Use Case Diagram as an important application analysis tool.

[21:06] {EllenWhitney} Ivar (along with Booch and Rumbaugh) are the "three amigos" the ones credited what is known today as UML - the Unified Modeling Language.

[21:06] {EllenWhitney} Use Cases and Use Case diagrams are an important part of the software design and modeling process.

[21:06] {EllenWhitney} [5]

[21:06] {EllenWhitney} Just like the Requirements, the Use Cases allow us to plan the system that we are going to build.

[21:07] {EllenWhitney} Extensive planning of course leads to higher quality software.

[21:07] {EllenWhitney} Often times people (programmers as well as customers) feel like they aren’t being ‘productive’ since they aren’t producing any code.

[21:07] {EllenWhitney} However, applications that are well planned and built with a solid design are actually less time consuming to build, more flexible/scalable and easier to maintain than if you build something by trial and error.

[21:07] {EllenWhitney} (let me ask you guys... am I going too fast or slow?)

[21:07] {DenisChasse} ok

[21:08] {EllenWhitney} And an added bonus is that by the time you’ve produced good Use Cases, you will be able to accurately estimate what the cost of programming the project will be.

[21:08] {EllenWhitney} [6]

[21:08] {EllenWhitney} OK, so now that I’ve convinced you that Use Cases are GREAT! {BG} you’d probably like to know what exactly they are!

[21:08] {EllenWhitney} The Use Case process actually takes off where the Requirements Process left off.

[21:08] {EllenWhitney} The requirements left us with a list (may be unordered list or may have been developed into a Requirements Trace Matrix...) of tasks that the system must perform.

[21:09] {EllenWhitney} If you missed my lecture on Introduction to the Requirements Process, you can check out the Wiki Topic at:

[21:09] {EllenWhitney} Use Cases are text documents, written in plain English, that describe a scenario in which an "Actor" interacts with the "System".

[21:09] {EllenWhitney} Use Cases are extremely useful because they are easily understood by the stakeholders of the application.

[21:10] {EllenWhitney} Therefore, they help to eliminate misunderstandings about the scope and functionality of the system you are about to build.

[21:10] {EllenWhitney} An Actor isn’t always a person. Often times it’s another computer system or other hardware.

[21:10] {EllenWhitney} The Actors are not part of the system - they are OUTSIDE the system. They are the ones interacting WITH the system.

[21:11] {EllenWhitney} The Use Case should describe the interaction between the Actor and the System - What the Actor does and how the system reacts.

[21:11] {EllenWhitney} One thing to be careful of is to make sure the Use Case only describes how the system reacts. While writing the Use Case, don’t worry about how you will implement the system or the exact interface that the system will have.

[21:11] {EllenWhitney} An application will have many Use Cases (the exact number will of course depend on the size and complexity of the system) that describe it.

[21:12] {EllenWhitney} [7]

[21:12] {EllenWhitney} Since Use Cases start where the Requirements Gathering process left off, we will use our list of requirements to determine what Use Cases our system will have and many of our Requirements will become the business logic in our Use Cases.

[21:12] {EllenWhitney} Of course as you are developing the Use Cases, you will have many questions - this is where the Domain Experts and Users play an important part.

[21:13] {EllenWhitney} The Stakeholders will also have valuable input. Stakeholders are people who have an interest in the system (like the owners of the company you are working for), but unlike the Users, may not have any direct contact with the system.

[21:13] {EllenWhitney} [8]

[21:13] {AlexFeldstein} So the Stakeholders are not necessarily the Domain Experts?

[21:14] {EllenWhitney} Right. Many times the client that hires you (the Stakeholder) may not be the Domain Expert.

[21:14] {CathyPountney} Would a manager be a stakehold if he only READS reports generated on the system, but doesn't actually use the system to get the report?

[21:14] {EllenWhitney} Basically, there are two parts to developing Use Cases - the text document and the accompanying UML diagrams.

[21:14] {EllenWhitney} I believe the best way to do the text part is to develop a template and fill that out for each of your use cases.

[21:14] {JacciAdams} Cathy: yes

[21:16] {EllenWhitney} Actually Nancy and Barb did an article for CoDe Magazine that you might find interesting regarding the players in a project...

[21:16] {EllenWhitney} It was in the Fall 2000 Issue....

[21:16] {EllenWhitney} For the Use Case Diagrams I use Visual UML.

[21:16] {EllenWhitney} [9]

[21:16] {JacciAdams} Ellen: Some of the templates have confusing terminology or language that is new to us

[21:16] {EllenWhitney} Jacci - Right.... We'll go over that...

[21:17] {EllenWhitney} At EPS we have a template that has the sections shown on this slide. You can download this template at:

[21:17] {EllenWhitney} I think the easiest way to examine and discuss this template is to look at an example...

[21:17] {EllenWhitney} [10]

[21:18] {EllenWhitney} In our example, we will look at the process of ordering movie tickets online.

[21:18] {EllenWhitney} I used our standard EPS Use Case Template for this example. You can download this example at:

[21:20] {EllenWhitney} Let’s look at each section of the Use Case…

[21:20] {EllenWhitney} The Overview is one or two sentences that describe the overall scenario that the Use Case covers.

[21:21] {EllenWhitney} In this example, the Overview would be: This scenario describes a Customer purchasing movie tickets online.

[21:21] {EllenWhitney} The Notes tell any relevant information the reader should know about the Use Case. In our case, a note may be: "The customer must be able to access this site using any web browser. "

[21:21] {EllenWhitney} The Actors section lists the actors that are involved in the scenario.

[21:21] {EllenWhitney} Remember that the actors are not always people, but instead may be other programs, systems or equipment.

[21:22] {EllenWhitney} In our example, the actor is simply the Customer who is buying the tickets. Some people like to name the actors (like "Mary" or "John") and then use the name in the Scenario.

[21:22] {EllenWhitney} The Preconditions list any events that must have happened prior to the event that the use case covers. In our example the precondition is that the Customer has navigated to our web site, researched the movie they want to see and are no ready to order their tickets.

[21:22] {EllenWhitney} [11]

[21:22] {EllenWhitney} The Scenario is the main body and most important part of the Use Case. There are several different techniques for presenting this information, but I think the easiest/clearest way is the way we do it at EPS – in a two column table.

[21:23] {EllenWhitney} The scenario shows step-by-step the interaction between the Actor and the System.

[21:23] {EllenWhitney} The first column shows what the Actor does, and the second column shows the reaction of the System.

[21:23] {EllenWhitney} (How's everyone doing? Anyone lost?)

[21:24] {SeanStenlund} Great here!

[21:24] {EllenWhitney} [12]

[21:24] {DenisChasse} ok

[21:24] {EllenWhitney} One common mistake that people make is that they will have an "Action" and no "Reaction".

[21:24] {EllenWhitney} [13]

[21:25] {EllenWhitney} The Action should actually continue until it elicits a REACTION from the software.

[21:25] {EllenWhitney} Alternatively, of course we could just say "Customer fills out their name and address information." as Step 1.

[21:25] {EllenWhitney} [14]

[21:25] {EllenWhitney} Back to our example…

[21:26] {EllenWhitney} The next section is the Scenario Notes. These are any general (or specific notes about any of the information covered in the Scenario). This is also a good place to put any questions you have about the Scenario.

[21:26] {EllenWhitney} Post Conditions cover any things that have to be addressed after the Scenario ends. These may include anything the system needs to do to "reset" itself for example, or where it takes the user to next.

[21:26] {EllenWhitney} Exceptions detail any rare business situations that would affect the Scenario. You might say something like "The above scenario doesn’t apply when..."

[21:27] {EllenWhitney} Required GUI and GUI Sketches are where you can put any interface sketches or proof-of-concepts. If you are updating an existing program, you may also choose to put screen shots of the existing program here.

[21:27] {EllenWhitney} In the Dependencies and Relations section, you list any related Use Cases.

[21:27] {EllenWhitney} [15]

[21:27] {EllenWhitney} This Use Case Diagram I created using Visual UML (from Visual Object Modelers).

[21:28] {EllenWhitney} As you see, you represent the Actor as a little stick figure (even if it’s not an actual person), and each Use Case in an oval.

[21:28] {EllenWhitney} With a Use Case Diagram you can easily see the relationships between the Use Cases.

[21:28] {EllenWhitney} Sometimes these diagrams are handy, but at EPS we don’t use them all the time.

[21:28] {EllenWhitney} [16]

[21:28] {EllenWhitney} Here are several suggestions for Software you can use to create Use Cases.

[21:29] {JamesMcilwrath} Excuse me, but am I supposed to be seeing something other than lines of text scrolling up on the screen?

[21:29] {JohnDurbin}

[21:29] {EllenWhitney} (thanks John)

[21:29] {JohnDurbin} :)

[21:29] {EllenWhitney} I suggest creating a template (or you can use the one I’ve posted to:

[21:29] {NancyFolsom} Ellen-When do you guys decide _to_ use them?

[21:30] {DenisChasse} Sorry everyone I"m getting kicked out from time to time :-(

[21:30] {EllenWhitney} to handle the Use Case documents.

[21:30] {EllenWhitney} Nancy - basically when it would make the overall layout of the Use Cases clearer.

[21:31] {JacciAdams} Nancy: I'm finding them very helpful in a new project I'm starting, and in updating an existing one.

[21:31] {EllenWhitney} It clearly shows which Use Cases are related.

[21:31] {NancyFolsom} Gotcha. It seems like the more use cases you have, the more diagrams will help.

[21:31] {EllenWhitney} Right. :)

[21:31] {EllenWhitney} I would do this in Word or better yet in a Wiki. The way we handle projects at EPS is that we set up a Wiki for each project.

[21:32] {EllenWhitney} The great thing about doing your Requirements and Use Cases on a Wiki is the hyperlinking ability and that it easily lets multiple people work on the Requirements and Use Cases at the same time.

[21:32] {EllenWhitney} You can contact Steven Black about running the Wiki software on your server (it actually is a VFP program...) or optionally I think you can also have it hosted on his server.

[21:32] {EllenWhitney} For the Use Case Diagrams I recommend Visual UML. Visual UML is much cheaper than Rational Rose.

[21:32] {EllenWhitney} [17]

[21:32] {EllenWhitney} Here is a list of some of the more popular books that deal with Use Cases. They are all available from

[21:33] {EllenWhitney} [18]

[21:33] {DenisChasse} Q

[21:33] {EllenWhitney} For more information about writing Use Cases, see the Summer 2001 issue of Component Developer Magazine - I will be writing an article.

[21:33] {EllenWhitney} Yes, Denis?

[21:33] {DenisChasse} Are these books related to a particular programming language?

[21:34] {EllenWhitney} In general no...

[21:34] {JacciAdams} Writing Effecitive Use Cases is not

[21:34] {EllenWhitney} With the exception of Markus' book of course...

[21:34] {EllenWhitney} His is based on VFP 6.0

[21:34] {AlAllison} hi Cindy

[21:34] {EllenWhitney} [18]

[21:35] {EllenWhitney} oops... [19]

[21:35] {EllenWhitney} Here are some web links that have information about Use Cases.

[21:35] {EllenWhitney} Interestingly, two of them are in England. I’m not sure if the practice of writing Use Cases as part of the software development process is more well known/popular there or if this is merely coincidence.

[21:35] {EllenWhitney}


[21:35] {EllenWhitney} I was able to find several Workshops/Seminars on writing Use Cases. I can’t personally endorse any of them, since I’ve never attended.

[21:36] {EllenWhitney} The first is one is by Construx. That is the company that Steve McConnell owns. Steve is the author of several best selling books like ‘Code Complete’, ‘After the Gold Rush’ and ‘Software Project Survival Guide’.

[21:36] {EllenWhitney} The training seminar by Embarcado Technologies is actually a FREE ‘Webinar’ (Web based seminar). The next one will be given on Feb 22 at 1:00 EST. You just have to sign up on their website.

[21:37] {DenisChasse} Free?

[21:37] {EllenWhitney} Apparently the way the 'Webinar' works is that you navigate on a web site while listening to the lecture on the phone... a 1-800 #

[21:37] {EllenWhitney} Sounds pretty cool... I'm going to attend. Yes, FREE.

[21:37] {JohnDurbin} wow 800 number even? :)

[21:37] {EllenWhitney} You just sign up on their web site.

[21:38] {JacciAdams} that is cool!

[21:38] {EllenWhitney}


[21:38] {EllenWhitney} Well, I hope you enjoyed this presentation (and actually learned something too... {BG})

[21:38] {EllenWhitney} I’ll be the first to admit that Use Cases can at times be really tedious, especially for a large project. Sometimes it seems like you are never going to get done with them!

[21:39] {EllenWhitney} However, I see it as a necessary part of the development process and I think that once you use them on a project (and get comfortable with writing them) that you will see them as a really good/necessary tool for writing high quality software.

[21:39] {EllenWhitney} I think that good planning is becoming increasingly important as applications become more and more ‘OOPish’ and ‘componentized’.

[21:39] {EllenWhitney} It’s one thing to just sit down and write a stand alone app without good planning, but writing a COM based, scalable Web app without proper planning is almost impossible!

[21:39] {EllenWhitney}


[21:40] {EllenWhitney} Any questions?

[21:40] {SeanStenlund} "OOPish" like on saturday night live "Strategery"

[21:40] {EllenWhitney} Right! :)

[21:40] {EllenWhitney} We say "strategery" around EPS all the time now....

[21:40] {DenisChasse} Thanks Ellen. That was very nice

[21:40] {JacciAdams} Have you read Cockburn's book.

[21:40] {JohnDurbin} lol I love that. we do that too

[21:40] {SeanStenlund} We do to.

[21:40] {SeanStenlund} {bg}

[21:40] {EllenWhitney} Denis - Great! Glad you liked it.

[21:41] {JohnDurbin} I got a question

[21:41] {EllenWhitney} Jacci - Some of it... I'm finding it kinda hard to get thru to be honest...

[21:41] {JohnDurbin} an actor is _outside_ the system?

[21:41] {EllenWhitney} It just doesn't seem to 'flow....'

[21:41] {JacciAdams} It is quite deep.

[21:41] {EllenWhitney} Yes John?

[21:41] {JacciAdams} There are several layers, which makes it confusing.

[21:41] {JohnDurbin} actors are outside the system?

[21:41] {EllenWhitney} Yes, an Actor interacts WITH the system.

[21:41] {RandyJean} Hi Jacci, long time no see {g}

[21:42] {JacciAdams} Hi Randy

[21:42] {EllenWhitney} But remember that the Actor doesn't necessarily need to be a PERSON.

[21:42] {RandyJean} Here I am, late as usual

[21:42] {AlexFeldstein} Q

[21:42] {JohnDurbin} The wiki has that actors are outside the system or business. I put "Is that right? That would exclude a sales rep as an acor"

[21:42] {DenisChasse} Ellen - Use case seems to be a good tool but what if instead of it one decides to make the user manual or help file before the system is done. Did you ever try to do that?

[21:42] {EllenWhitney} It could just as well be another system or even a piece of hardware.

[21:42] {JohnDurbin} Maybe I'm missing what the "system" is

[21:43] {JillDerickson} Ellen, I just tried to access the address you gave where the sample use case template is...and I' not authorized

[21:43] {JacciAdams} John: Yes, I'm working w/ a client right now and their customers don't directly interact with the system, yet they are considered actors

[21:43] {AlexFeldstein} Jill: I downloaded the DOC template fine

[21:43] {EllenWhitney} The "system" is the program usually....

[21:43] {JohnDurbin} I guess you have to sign in first in the trraining section?

[21:43] {JillDerickson} hmmmmm...will try again

[21:43] {BillArmbrecht} thanks ellen, bye all!

[21:43] {AlexFeldstein} Ellen: Do you find Stakeholders get the point if you show them a Use Case doc?

[21:44] {EllenWhitney} Denis - no, I never did it that way, but it sounds interesting....

[21:44] {EllenWhitney} Thanks Bill...

[21:44] {EllenWhitney} Alex -

[21:44] {EllenWhitney} Yes, definitely!

[21:45] {RandyJean} At least at outline of a manual, but a Use Case shows more workflow than a user manual would

[21:45] {JohnDurbin} cause its in plain engilsh that is beneficially to techs and laypersons right?

[21:45] {RandyJean} I like to use the term "A day in the life of....."

[21:45] {EllenWhitney} Most times I write the Use Cases WITH the Stakeholders and Users and Domain Experts.

[21:45] {JohnDurbin} Why is it called "Domain" Expert?

[21:45] {EllenWhitney} They are in plain English, and go step by step, so they are easy to understand.

[21:45] {JacciAdams} I'm finding that going through this process is bringing up all kinds of exceptions that we might not have seen and are creating new use cases to capture them

[21:46] {EllenWhitney} The "Domain" is the Business you are working with...

[21:46] {JohnDurbin} It brings you back to holes in the requirements :o

[21:46] {JacciAdams} Randy: I like that term. It is exactly how I approached them with my client. It is working great!

[21:46] {JohnDurbin} ok thanks Ellen

[21:46] {SeanStenlund} Great presentation Ellen. : )

[21:46] {AlexFeldstein} Thanks Ellen. G'nite all (G'morning Jill)

[21:47] {EllenWhitney} So the "Domain Expert" is the person who knows all about their business...

[21:47] {JohnDurbin} I thought domain might be further described as accounting or sales like NT domains :)

[21:47] {EllenWhitney} Sean - thanks!

[21:47] {CindyWinegarden} The log will be posted in a few days at

[21:47] {RandyJean} Darn, I guess I'll just have to wait for the Cliff Notes

[21:47] {NancyFolsom} Jill ( The link is

[21:47] {JohnDurbin} great thanks Cindy

[21:47] {JacciAdams} Yes, Ellen, great presentation. Very well organized.

[21:47] {EllenWhitney} Sorry Randy. :)

[21:47] {JillDerickson} got it, thanks

[21:47] {MarkusVoellmy} Great job Ellen, Thanks

[21:47] {EllenWhitney} But the way Cindy posts them, you really don't miss much... :)

[21:47] {RandyJean} Hehehe. No prob. My wife was getting me to watch Temptation Island, but it was very boring so here I am.

[21:48] {JacciAdams} Randy, I'm surprised at you

[21:48] {EllenWhitney} Thanks Jacci. I hope it made sense... I only finished it about 1/2 hour ago. (Markus is a bad influence on me... :)

[21:48] {RandyJean} I just don't get enough of "geeking out"!

[21:49] {NancyFolsom} Heh. She may have finished a 1/2 an hour ago, but she's been working on the presentation for days!

[21:49] {JacciAdams} Ellen: It was great stuff, maybe a little more detail in the exception area.

[21:49] {JohnDurbin} Ellen I didnt know you were part owner. I guess you don't earn points :)

[21:49] {EllenWhitney} The next presentation I'll be doing will be how to go from the Use Case to Modeling and explanations about what the different types of models are for.

[21:49] {CharlieBlakey} Thank you Ellen - interesting stuff

[21:50] {EllenWhitney} Thanks Charlie!

[21:50] {JacciAdams} Randy: Didn't get enough this weekend huh?

[21:50] {EllenWhitney} Yes, John, I'm part owner... :)

[21:50] {RandyJean} Shhh! Don't tell anyone {g}

[21:50] {AlAllison} thanks Ellen, everyone, off to the link

[21:50] {NancyFolsom} Yes, good stuff, El. Thanks.

[21:51] {EllenWhitney} Actually I have to go too... Sushi is calling me....

[21:51] {NancyFolsom} Sushi!

[21:51] {JillDerickson} thanks Ellen...see you next time.

[21:51] {JohnDurbin} very good indeed. You do good at clarifying things even in a brief presentation

[21:51] {Brian} thank you

[21:51] {CindyWinegarden} Thanks Ellen.

[21:51] {EllenWhitney} Great Jill !! Glad you plan on coming back. :))

[21:51] {RandyJean} I finally got my 900MB sourcesafe db to analyze today. Not too much corruption after 3 years {g}

[21:51] {CindyWinegarden} Watch for the log.

[21:51] {JillDerickson} when I can make it - the time is hard to arrange sometimes...thanks again.

[21:51] {EllenWhitney} No problem!

[21:52] {JillDerickson} Sushi is your cat, perhaps?

[21:52] {DenisChasse} Is there a natural link between Use Cases and UML?

[21:52] {EllenWhitney} No, Sushi is FOOD!!

[21:52] {JillDerickson} yum

[21:52] {EllenWhitney} Denis - yes.

[21:52] {NancyFolsom} Sushi is _NOT_ food. Hurumph.

[21:52] {JillDerickson} ohhhh yes it is!

[21:52] {EllenWhitney} The Use Case Diagrams are actually PART OF the UML.

[21:52] {DenisChasse} ok

[21:53] {RandyJean} Denis - Yes, but usually Class Diagrams are the part that get round tripped to code.

[21:53] {CindyWinegarden} Yes Nancy, I agree, though for different reasons.

[21:53] {EllenWhitney} Yes, Randy is right.

[21:53] {NancyFolsom} Tho' use cases should be "round-tripped" too. Kept up to date as the design evolves. JMO.

[21:53] {RandyJean} Definitely

[21:54] {EllenWhitney} Denis - and BOTH the Use Cases and UC Diagrams were 'invented' by Ivar Jacobson

[21:54] {JohnDurbin} and the actors are 'subclassed' inside the system?

[21:54] {JohnDurbin} or the usecase itself is?

[21:55] {EllenWhitney} John - Can you clarify what you mean? I'm not sure...

[21:55] {JohnDurbin} or should I say reused

[21:56] {RandyJean} I noticed you left Visio off your software tools Ellen. Any reason?

[21:56] {NancyFolsom} John- Not sure what you mean, but I think you might be missing "actor"'s a person or other system that interacts with the system we are interested in modelling.

[21:56] {EllenWhitney} Randy - Actually no reason.... Just an oversight on my part!! I like Visio.

[21:57] {RandyJean} Yea, me too! I've actually been using the data modeler in the latest enterprise version. Works pretty well.

[21:57] {DenisChasse} Is Visio at the same level as Visual UML or Rational Rose?

[21:57] {DenisChasse} I guess not

[21:57] {JohnDurbin} I mean usecases can be reused in even different projects

[21:57] {NancyFolsom} Does visio do round trip engineering?

[21:58] {RandyJean} Denis - I would say no, it is not as integrated with the development tools as Rational is.

[21:58] {EllenWhitney} Denis/Nancy - I'm not sure about everything that Visio includes, but it doesn't do Round Trip Engineering.

[21:58] {RandyJean} I've never looked at the UML stuff in Visio. I did notice that the enterprise version has Use Case tools.

[21:58] {RandyJean} The data modeler does round trip - sort of {g}

[21:59] {EllenWhitney} John - Yes, some generic Use Cases (like my "Managing Pick Lists") might be able to be reused.

[22:00] {EllenWhitney} OK guys, I really have to go... Have a great night!

[22:00] {JohnDurbin} Ok thanks

[22:00] {EllenWhitney} I'm glad you enjoyed it...

[22:00] {DenisChasse} Enjoy the Sushi Ellen

[22:00] {RandyJean} Goodnight Ellen, thanks. I'll try to be on time next time.

[22:00] {EllenWhitney} Hope to see you in my "Intro to UML and Modeling"....

Contributors EllenWhitney, Evan Delay, Cindy Winegarden
Category Wednesday Night Lectures
( Topic last updated: 2001.02.20 10:25:07 PM )